Basic difference between Microprocessor and Microcontroller

Both Microprocessor and Microcontrollers are made up of semiconductor material and almost share the same functions but still, there are a lot of differences that distinguish both of these chips.

Difference between Microprocessor and Microcontroller

Some of the basic differences between Microprocessor and Microcontroller are given below:

We hope this article helped you understand the difference between Microprocessor and Microcontroller. Thanks for Reading!!

Microprocessor Microcontroller
 1. Microprocessor is a specially designed electronics chip that performs Arithmetic and Logical Operations and also communicates with other devices connected.  1. Microcontroller is a specially designed chip that is meant to perform a specific task. 
 2. Microprocessor does not have Memory and hence needs to communicate with memory to perform various tasks. To use external memory, we need to perform interfacing which makes it complex.  2. The microcontroller has its memory installed on the chip hence it is less complex.
 3. Microprocessor contains an Arithmetic and Logical Unit(ALU), Control Unit(CU), and registers that assimilates all the functions of a CPU.  3. Microcontroller contains CPU along with I/O Ports, Memory, Counters, Timers, etc. which makes it a small computer on its own.
 4. Microprocessors are used in General-Purpose computers such as Personal Computers that perform a wide range of functions.  4. Microcontrollers are used to process and control a particular task. It is generally used in automatically controlled devices.
 5. It contains fewer registers hence the operations are more memory-based.  5. Microcontrollers have more registers which makes it easy to write and executive programs.
 6. Microprocessor has a Zero status flag.  6. The microcontroller does not have a Zero status flag.
 7. Microprocessor has more computing power which makes it suitable for complex processes.  7. Microcontroller has less computing power as compared to a microprocessor hence used for a particular process only.
 8. Microprocessor only executes the Instruction cycle(Fetch, Decode and Execute).  8. The microcontroller executes the Instruction cycle and also controls the variables of a process accordingly.
 9. Clock frequency of the Microprocessor is in GigaHertz(GHz).  9. The clock frequency of the Microcontroller is in MegaHertz(MHz).
 10. Cost of Microprocessors is high and the system built on them is also expensive due to the requirement of various parts.  10. The cost of a Microcontroller is less as compared to that of a Microprocessor. 
 11. Microprocessor performs various tasks and hence requires more power.   11. The microcontroller performs a specific task and hence does not require much power.
 12. More power consumption makes microprocessors heat up hence requiring external cooling devices.   12. External cooling is not required due to less power consumption. 
 13. Microprocessors are based on Von Newman Architecture.  13. Microcontrollers are based on Harvard Architecture.
 14. It is the most important part of a Computer.   14. It is the most important part of an Embedded system.
 15. It is not meant for Real-Time processes because it requires multiple components to be connected externally.  15. Since it is meant for a specific task and is a whole package of everything required so it is generally used in Real-Time Processes. 
 16. Applications include General Purpose Computers.  16. Applications include MP3 Players, Washing Machines, Microwave Ovens, Water Tank Alarm Systems, Embedded Systems, etc.

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